Histopathological findings of anterior lens capsule in pediatric cataract

Indian J Ophthalmol. 2024 May 20. doi: 10.4103/IJO.IJO_2957_23. Online ahead of print.


PURPOSE: To investigate the histopathological findings of the anterior lens capsule in pediatric patients who had surgery for cataracts.

METHODS: This study is a prospective interventional study. Anterior capsule tissue samples that were obtained by the anterior capsulotomy method during phacoemulsification surgery were fixed and examined under a transmission electron microscope.

RESULTS: Twenty-two eyes of 19 patients who were diagnosed with congenital and juvenile cataracts were included in this study. Five patients had associated systemic diseases, including hydrocephalus, cerebral palsy, prematurity, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, and Down’s syndrome. Electron microscopic evaluation demonstrated single-layered epithelium under the capsule, degenerated organelles with round-oval and prismatic-oval nuclei, and degenerated mitochondria and heterochromatin-rich nuclei. In the case with cerebral palsy, collagen fibrils of the connective tissue and fibroblast-like cells were observed replacing the epithelium that should be underneath the capsule in both eyes, and there was a disorganized distribution of collagen fibrils and vacuole structures in the cytoplasm of fibroblast-like cells.

CONCLUSION: Similar histopathological findings were found in pediatric cataracts with or without systemic disease except in one cerebral palsy case. The absence of lens epithelium may have been a result of degeneration in this patient, and this can be attributed to the presence of systemic inflammation and gliosis in cerebral palsy. The absence of lens epithelium can play a role in the development of dense subcapsular fibrosis and cataract formation.

PMID:38767535 | DOI:10.4103/IJO.IJO_2957_23