Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2023 Feb 11;2023:3479688. doi: 10.1155/2023/3479688. eCollection 2023.
Pancreatic cancer has higher incidence and mortality rates worldwide. PW06 [(E)-3-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl) prop-2-en-1-one] is a carbazole derivative containing chalcone moiety which was designed for inhibiting tumorigenesis in human pancreatic cancer. This study is aimed at investigating PW06-induced anticancer effects in human pancreatic cancer MIA PaCa-2 cells in vitro. The results showed PW06 potent antiproliferative/cytotoxic activities and induced cell morphological changes in a human pancreatic cancer cell line (MIA PaCa-2), and these effects are concentration-dependent (IC50 is 0.43 μM). Annexin V and DAPI staining assays indicated that PW06 induced apoptotic cell death and DNA condensation. Western blotting indicated that PW06 increased the proapoptotic proteins such as Bak and Bad but decreased the antiapoptotic protein such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Moreover, PW06 increased the active form of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3, PARP, releasing cytochrome c, AIF, and Endo G from mitochondria in MIA PaCa-2 cells. Confocal laser microscopy assay also confirmed that PW06 increased Bak and decreased Bcl-xL. Also, the cells were pretreated with inhibitors of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 and then were treated with PW06, resulting in increased viable cell number compared to PW06 treated only. Furthermore, PW06 showed a potent binding ability with hydrophobic interactions in the core site of the Fas-Fas death domains (FADD). In conclusion, PW06 can potent binding ability to the Fas-FADD which led to antiproliferative, cytotoxic activities, and apoptosis induction accompanied by the caspase-dependent and mitochondria-dependent pathways in human pancreatic cancer MIA PaCa-2 cells.