Sodium ferrous citrate and 5-aminolevulinic acid improve type 2 diabetes by maintaining muscle and mitochondrial health

Obesity (Silver Spring). 2023 Feb 23. doi: 10.1002/oby.23705. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: Improving mitochondrial function is a promising strategy for intervention in type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study investigated the preventive effects of sodium ferrous citrate (SFC) and 5-aminolevulinic acid phosphate (ALA) on several metabolic dysfunctions associated with obesity because they have been shown to alleviate abnormal glucose metabolism in humans.

METHODS: Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed with a normal diet, a high-fat diet, or a high-fat diet supplemented with SFC and ALA for 15 weeks.

RESULTS: The simultaneous supplementation of SFC + ALA to high-fat diet-fed mice prevented loss of muscle mass, improved muscle strength, and reduced obesity and insulin resistance. SFC + ALA prevented abnormalities in mitochondrial morphology and reverted the diet effect on the skeletal muscle transcriptome, including the expression of glucose uptake and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation-related genes. In addition, SFC + ALA prevented the decline in mitochondrial DNA copy number by enhancing mitochondrial DNA maintenance and antioxidant transcription activity, both of which are impaired in high-fat diet-fed mice during long-term fasting.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that SFC + ALA supplementation exerts its preventive effects in type 2 diabetes mellitus via improved skeletal muscle and mitochondrial health, further validating its application as a promising strategy for the prevention of obesity-induced metabolic disorders.

PMID:36823345 | DOI:10.1002/oby.23705