Modulation of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Is a Possible Underlying Mechanism for Inducing Chemoresistance in MIA PaCa-2 Cells against Gemcitabine and Paclitaxel

Biomedicines. 2024 May 3;12(5):1011. doi: 10.3390/biomedicines12051011.


To elucidate the currently unknown molecular mechanisms responsible for the similarity and difference during the acquirement of resistance against gemcitabine (GEM) and paclitaxel (PTX) in patients with pancreatic carcinoma, we examined two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cultures of parent MIA PaCa-2 cells (MIA PaCa-2-PA) and their GEM resistance cell line (MIA PaCa-2-GR) and PTX resistance (MIA PaCa-2-PR). Using these cells, we examined 3D spheroid configurations and cellular metabolism, including mitochondrial and glycolytic functions, with a Seahorse bio-analyzer and RNA sequencing analysis. Compared to the MIA PaCa-2-PA, (1) the formation of the 3D spheroids of MIA PaCa-2-GR or -PR was much slower, and (2) their mitochondrial and glycolytic functions were greatly modulated in MIA PaCa-2-GR or -PR, and such metabolic changes were also different between their 2D and 3D culture conditions. RNA sequencing and bioinformatic analyses of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using an ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) suggested that various modulatory factors related to epithelial -mesenchymal transition (EMT) including STAT3, GLI1, ZNF367, NKX3-2, ZIC2, IFIT2, HEY1 and FBLX, may be the possible upstream regulators and/or causal network master regulators responsible for the acquirement of drug resistance in MIA PaCa-2-GR and -PR. In addition, among the prominently altered DEGs (Log2 fold changes more than 6 or less than -6), FABP5, IQSEC3, and GASK1B were identified as unique genes associated with their antisense RNA or pseudogenes, and among these, FABP5 and GASK1B are known to function as modulators of cancerous EMT. Therefore, the observations reported herein suggest that modulations of cancerous EMT may be key molecular mechanisms that are responsible for inducing chemoresistance against GEM or PTX in MIA PaCa-2 cells.

PMID:38790973 | DOI:10.3390/biomedicines12051011