Autosomal recessive leber hereditary optic neuropathy in a choroideremia carrier. A case report

Eur J Ophthalmol. 2024 May 7:11206721241254408. doi: 10.1177/11206721241254408. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is an inherited progressive optic neuropathy usually caused by mitochondrial DNA mutations. Recently, autosomal recessive (arLHON), which is caused by biallelic mutations in the DNAJC30 gene (usually c.152A > G), has been described. The onset of LHON before the age of 12 is uncommon and it is typically associated with a more variable clinical course and a more favorable visual prognosis than adult-onset LHON.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Detailed clinical findings of a female child with vision loss due to arLHON together with choroideremia (CHM) carrier state are presented.

RESULTS: Genetic testing for the three most common mitochondrial LHON pathogenic variants was negative. On suspicion of arLHON, genetic testing was continued with the next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the nuclear DNA, identifying a homozygous pathogenic variant in DNAJC3°c.152A > G, p.(Tyr51Cys), but no alterations in the CHM gene. Idebenone treatment was started 4.5 months after the first evaluation. Clinical diagnosis of the CHM carrier state was confirmed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay, which revealed a heterozygous deletion of all exons of the CHM.

CONCLUSIONS: In children with acute or subacute, simultaneous, or sequential vision loss that is unresponsive to immunomodulatory treatment, LHON should be considered as a possible diagnosis. Our case emphasizes the diagnostic advantage of sequencing DNAJC30 in parallel with the mitochondrial DNA, especially in Eastern European descent patients. Genomic rearrangement testing should be considered for patients with a CHM carrier phenotype who have negative results on sequencing tests.

PMID:38715355 | DOI:10.1177/11206721241254408