Mitochondrial complex I subunit MT-ND1 mutations affect disease progression

Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I is an important component of the oxidative respiratory chain, with the mitochondrially encoded NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit 1 (MT-ND1) being one of the core subunits. MT-ND1 plays a role in the assembly of complex I and its enzymatic function. MT-ND1 gene mutation affects pathophysiological processes, such as interfering with the early assembly of complex I, affecting the ubiquinone binding domain and proton channel of complex I, and…

Secondary follicles enable efficient germline mtDNA base editing at hard-to-edit site

Efficient germline mtDNA editing is required to construct disease-related animal models and future gene therapy. Recently, the DddA-derived cytosine base editors (DdCBEs) have made mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) precise editing possible. However, there still exist challenges for editing some mtDNA sites in germline via zygote injection, probably due to the suspended mtDNA replication during preimplantation development. Here, we introduce a germline mtDNA base editing strategy: injecting DdCBEs…

Generation of iPSCs from identical twin, one affected by LHON and one unaffected, both carrying a combination of two mitochondrial variants: m.14484 T>C and m.10680G>A

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is one of the most common mitochondrial illness, causing retinal ganglion cell degeneration and central vision loss. It stems from point mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), with key mutations being m.3460G > A, m.11778G > A, and m.14484 T > C. Fibroblasts from identical twins, sharing m.14484 T > C and m.10680G > A variants each with 70 % heteroplasmy, were used to generate iPSC lines. Remarkably, one twin, a LHON patient, displayed symptoms, while…

The Optic Nerve at Stake: Update on Environmental Factors Modulating Expression of Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

Optic neuropathies are characterized by the degeneration of the optic nerves and represent a considerable individual and societal burden. Notably, Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a devastating vision disease caused by mitochondrial gene mutations that hinder oxidative phosphorylation and increase oxidative stress, leading to the loss of retinal ganglion neurons and axons. Loss of vision is rapid and severe, predominantly in young adults. Penetrance is incomplete, and the time of…

Digenic Leigh syndrome on the background of the m.11778G>A Leber hereditary optic neuropathy variant

Leigh syndrome spectrum (LSS) is a primary mitochondrial disorder defined neuropathologically by a subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy and characterised by bilateral basal ganglia and/or brainstem lesions. LSS is associated with variants in several mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes and more than 100 nuclear genes, most often related to mitochondrial complex I (CI) dysfunction. Rarely, LSS has been reported in association with primary Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) variants of the…

Peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thinning, perfusion changes and optic neuropathy in carriers of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy-associated mitochondrial variants

CONCLUSION: Overall, reduced peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer perfusion was observed in those affected by LHON but was not reduced in their asymptomatic relatives, unlike RNFL thinning which was significantly reduced in both groups versus controls. The presence of RNFL changes was associated with signs of optic neuropathy in asymptomatic relatives.

Mitochondrial DNA mutations in Korean patients with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy

In order to explore the spectrum of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in Korean patients with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), we investigated the spectrum of mtDNA mutations in 145 Korean probands confirmed with the diagnosis of LHON. Total genomic DNA was isolated from the peripheral blood leukocytes of the patients with suspected LHON, and mtDNA mutations were identified by direct sequencing. Analysis of mtDNA mutations revealed seven primary LHON mutations including the…

Electroretinographic oscillatory potentials in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

CONCLUSIONS: Reduced OPs in LHON patients may represent disturbed neuronal interactions in the inner retina with preserved photoreceptoral (a-wave) to bipolar cell (b-wave) activation. Reduced DA OP2 and high-cutoff LA OP alterations may be further explored as functional measures to characterize LHON status and progression.

Prophylactic nicotinamide treatment protects from rotenone-induced neurodegeneration by increasing mitochondrial content and volume

Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is driven by mtDNA mutations affecting Complex I presenting as progressive retinal ganglion cell dysfunction usually in the absence of extra-ophthalmic symptoms. There are no long-term neuroprotective agents for LHON. Oral nicotinamide provides a robust neuroprotective effect against mitochondrial and metabolic dysfunction in other retinal injuries. We explored the potential for nicotinamide to protect mitochondria in LHON by modelling the disease in…