Protection against Oxidative Stress by Coenzyme Q10 in a Porcine Retinal Degeneration Model

J Pers Med. 2024 Apr 22;14(4):437. doi: 10.3390/jpm14040437.


Oxidative stress plays an important role in neurodegenerative diseases, including glaucoma. Therefore, we analyzed if the antioxidant coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), which is also commercially available, can prevent retinal degeneration induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a porcine organ culture model. Retinal explants were cultivated for eight days, and H2O2 (500 µM, 3 h) induced the oxidative damage. CoQ10 therapy was applied (700 µM, 48 h). Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and microglia were examined immunohistologically in all groups (control, H2O2, H2O2 + CoQ10). Cellular, oxidative, and inflammatory genes were quantified via RT-qPCR. Strong RGC loss was observed with H2O2 (p ≤ 0.001). CoQ10 elicited RGC protection compared to the damaged group at a histological (p ≤ 0.001) and mRNA level. We detected more microglia cells with H2O2, but CoQ10 reduced this effect (p = 0.004). Cellular protection genes (NRF2) against oxidative stress were stimulated by CoQ10 (p ≤ 0.001). Furthermore, mitochondrial oxidative stress (SOD2) increased through H2O2 (p = 0.038), and CoQ10 reduced it to control level. Our novel results indicate neuroprotection via CoQ10 in porcine retina organ cultures. In particular, CoQ10 appears to protect RGCs by potentially inhibiting apoptosis-related pathways, activating intracellular protection and reducing mitochondrial stress.

PMID:38673065 | DOI:10.3390/jpm14040437