Ocular manifestations of mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy: A case report and literature review

Am J Med Genet A. 2023 Aug 2. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.63361. Online ahead of print.


Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is a rare autosomal recessive multisystem disorder that often presents with gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms. Here we report a 33-year-old male who presented with a 16-year history of diarrhea with black stool and progressive weight loss. He complained of progressive bilateral blurred vision, upper eyelids heaviness, ocular motility impairment, and color blindness. Peripheral neuropathy, bilateral sensorineural deafness, hyperlactatemia, diabetes mellitus, hepatic steatosis, blood coagulation dysfunction, and diffuse leukoencephalopathy were detected in the systemic evaluation. Based on the novel homozygous pathogenic variant in the TYMP gene (c.1159+1G>A), he was diagnosed with MNGIE. On ophthalmic examinations, the thickness of the inner retina and ganglion cell complex significantly decreased. ERG showed diffusely decreased amplitudes. The electronegative electroretinogram, which was first reported in MNGIE, indicated a more severe inner retina impairment. The bilateral papillomacular bundle defect and central vision loss in MNGIE are consistent with classical mitochondrial optic neuropathies’ features. According to the literature, pigmentary retinopathy, optic neuropathy, and abnormal pupillary reflexes are uncommon ocular features of MNGIE. This study contributes to a better understanding of ocular manifestations in MNGIE and demonstrates that MNGIE may have dyschromatopsia and an electronegative electroretinogram.

PMID:37530213 | DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.63361