J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2023 Jul;39(6):404-414. doi: 10.1089/jop.2023.0011.
Purpose: To examine the effects of prostanoid FP and EP2 receptor agonists, PGF2α and Omidenepag (OMD), respectively, on the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β2) induced conjunctival fibrogenesis. Methods: Two-dimension (2D) and three-dimension (3D) cultures of these fibroblasts were subjected to following analyses: (1) planar proliferation evaluated by transendothelial electron resistance (TEER) measurements, (2) real-time metabolic analyses, (3) subepithelial proliferation evaluated by 3D spheroid’ size and stiffness measurements, and (4) the mRNA expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and their modulators. Results: TGF-β2 induced increase in the planar proliferation was significantly decreased or enhanced by PGF2α or OMD, respectively. The proportion of oxygen consumption required to drive ATP synthesis compared with that driving proton leakage was increased by PGF2α and OMD independently with TGF-β2. In contrast, maximal mitochondrial respiration was decreased by PGF2α and OMD, and the OMD-induced effect was further enhanced by the presence of TGF-β2. In addition, the TGF-β2 dependent increase in the glycolytic capacity was cancelled by PGF2α and/or OMD. Alternatively, subepithelial proliferation, as evidenced by the stiffness of the 3D spheroids, was substantially increased by both PGF2α and OMD, and these were differently modulated by TGF-β2. The expression of several related factors as above fluctuated among the conditions for both 2D and 3D and TGF-β2 untreated or treated cultures. Conclusion: The present findings indicate that the prostanoid FP or the EP2 receptor agonist may solely and differently induce the planar and subepithelial proliferation of HconF cells and these were also modulated by TGF-β2.