Adv Sci (Weinh). 2023 Apr 24:e2207608. doi: 10.1002/advs.202207608. Online ahead of print.
At present, radiotherapy (RT) still acquires limited success in clinical due to the lessened DNA damage under hypoxia and acquired immune tolerance owing to the amplified programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression. Incredibly, intracellular PD-L1 expression depression is proven to better sensitize RT by inhibiting DNA damage repair. However, the disability of the clinically used antibodies in disrupting the extracellular PD-L1function still limits the effectiveness of radio-immunotherapy. Therefore, better PD-L1 regulation strategies are still urgently needed to better sensitize radio-immunotherapy. Hence, for this purpose, TPP-LND is synthesized by linking mitochondrial-targeted triphenylphosphine cations (TPP+ ) to the antineoplastic agent lonidamine (LND), which significantly reduces the dose needed for LND to induce effective oxidative phosphorylation inhibition (2 vs 300 µM). Then, TPP-LND is wrapped with liposomes to form TPP-LND@Lip nanoparticles. By doing this, TPP-LND@Lip nanoparticles can sensitize RT by reversing the hypoxic microenvironment of tumors to generate more DNA damage and reducing the expression of PD-L1 via enhancing the adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation. As expected, these well-designed economical TPP-LND@Lip nanoparticles are more effective than conventional anti-PD-L1 antibodies to some extent.