Vestn Oftalmol. 2023;139(2):44-51. doi: 10.17116/oftalma202313902144.
In patients with glaucoma, the neuroplasticity of retinal cells, their axons and neuroglial elements is pathogenetically reduced, including due to a decrease in the concentration of neurotrophic factors. Coronavirus infections contribute to the damage processes, causing apoptosis of retinal and optic nerve cells. In this regard, the possibility of pharmacological stimulation of the production of these peptides through energy potentiation of the cell mitochondria function, reduction of oxidative stress severity and activation of interneuronal transduction system becomes relevant.
PURPOSE: This study aimed to conduct a comprehensive diagnosis of the severity of oxidative stress, identify changes in the neuroplasticity and reparative ability of the retina in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) who have recovered after a coronavirus infection, and are undergoing therapy with the complex drug Cytoflavin.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 40 patients (mean age 57.2±3.6 years) with advanced POAG compensated by hypotensive agents; all of them recovered from moderate Covid-19 30 to 90 days prior to inclusion in the study. Twenty patients of the main group received therapy with the complex drug Cytoflavin, 20 other patients comprised the control group. In the comparison groups, the concentration of BDNF and CNTF in blood serum (SC) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Overall assessment of oxidative stress was done by high performance liquid chromatography. Studies of the functional activity of the retina were performed using the Tomey EP 1000 electroretinograph according to the standard method.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Retinal photosensitivity significantly improved in patients of the main group taking the complex drug Cytoflavin (mD mean after treatment increased from -7.34±0.62 dB to -4.52±0.12 dB (p>0.001), PSD mean decreased from 6.23±0.21dB to 4.27±0.13 dB (p>0.001)); the neural activity of the retina improved according to PERG (the amplitudes of the P50 and N95 components increased from 0.92±0.04 µv to 1.65±0.01 µv and from 1.83±0.06 µv to 2.68±0.01 µv, respectively (p>0.001), the latency of the P50 and N95 components decreased from 53.40±2.51 ms to 49.37±2.22 ms and from 112.40±5.23 ms to 107.4±8.11ms, respectively (p>0.001); the concentration of BDNF increased (from 18.65±5.32 ng/ml to 20.23±4.05 ng/ml (p>0.001)) and the concentration of CNTF in the blood serum decreased (from 3.99±0.37 pg/ml to 1.85±0.02pg/ml (p>0.001)), the severity of oxidative stress decreased (the indicator of oxidative stress decreased by 1.4 times after treatment p>0.001) and the content of antioxidant protection indicators increased: the indicator of antioxidant protection of blood serum increased by 1.4 times, the concentration of superoxide dismutase – by 1.9 times (p>0.001), glutathione peroxidase – by 1.4 times (p>0.001), coenzyme Q10 – by 4.5 times (p>0.001).
CONCLUSION: The obtained data can be used to determine the risk of progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy in patients with glaucoma who have had a coronavirus infection.