Sensors (Basel). 2022 Sep 14;22(18):6941. doi: 10.3390/s22186941.
In this paper, we proposed a novel expectation-maximization-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm for millimeter-wave (mmW) communication systems. By fully exploiting the geometric relationship among the access point (AP) positions, the angle difference of arrival (ADOA) from the APs and the mobile terminal (MT) position, and regarding the MT positions as the latent variable of the AP positions, the proposed algorithm first reformulates the SLAM problem as the maximum likelihood joint estimation over both the AP positions and the MT positions in a latent variable model. Then, it employs a feasible stochastic approximation expectation-maximization (EM) method to estimate the AP positions. Specifically, the stochastic Monte Carlo approximation is employed to obtain the intractable expectation of the MT positions’ posterior probability in the E-step, and the gradient descent-based optimization is used as a viable substitute for estimating the high-dimensional AP positions in the M-step. Further, it estimates the MT positions and constructs the indoor map based on the estimated AP topology. Due to the efficient processing capability of the stochastic approximation EM method and taking full advantage of the abundant spatial information in the crowd-sourcing ADOA data, the proposed method can achieve a better positioning and mapping performance than the existing geometry-based mmW SLAM method, which usually has to compromise between the computation complexity and the estimation performance. The simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.