Biomolecules. 2023 Feb 1;13(2):271. doi: 10.3390/biom13020271.
Inherited retinal dystrophies (IRDs) are congenital retinal degenerative diseases that have various inheritance patterns, including dominant, recessive, X-linked, and mitochondrial. These diseases are most often the result of defects in rod and/or cone photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium function, development, or both. The genes associated with these diseases, when mutated, produce altered protein products that have downstream effects in pathways critical to vision, including phototransduction, the visual cycle, photoreceptor development, cellular respiration, and retinal homeostasis. The aim of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review of the underlying molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis of IRDs by delving into many of the genes associated with IRD development, their protein products, and the pathways interrupted by genetic mutation.