Ophthalmic Genet. 2023 Feb 2:1-4. doi: 10.1080/13816810.2023.2172190. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Aicardi syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a triad of partial or complete agenesis of the corpus callosum, infantile spasms, and pathognomonic chorioretinal lacunae.
METHODS: Examination, multimodal imaging, and genetic testing were used to guide diagnosis.
RESULTS: We report a case of a pediatric patient who was initially diagnosed with refractory infantile spasms. The patient was unresponsive to conventional antiepileptic therapy, and genetic testing with whole exome and mitochondrial genome sequencing could not identify the underlying cause, so vigabatrin was initiated. The ophthalmic examination under anesthesia for vigabatrin toxicity screening revealed chorioretinal atrophy in the retinal periphery of both eyes, with two 3-disc diameter chorioretinal lacunae superotemporal and inferonasal to the optic nerve in the left eye. Given the neuroimaging findings of corpus callosum hypoplasia with polymicrogyria and ocular findings, the patient was diagnosed with Aicardi syndrome. Genetic testing revealed a novel duplication event at the Xp22 locus.
CONCLUSIONS: Aicardi syndrome, albeit a rare condition, should always be considered in the differential diagnosis when investigating a female child with refractory seizures in early childhood. Genetic testing may help further our understanding of AIS and the search for a genetic etiology.