Psychiatry Res. 2023 Nov 25;331:115629. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2023.115629. Online ahead of print.
A number of congenital and inherited diseases present with both ocular and psychiatric features. The genetic inheritance and phenotypic variants play a key role in disease severity. Early recognition of the signs and symptoms of those disorders is critical to earlier intervention and improved prognosis. Typically, the associations between these two medical subspecialties of ophthalmology and psychiatry are poorly understood by most practitioners so we hope to provide a narrative review to improve the identification and management of these disorders. We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature detailing the diseases with ophthalmic and psychiatric overlap that were more widely represented in the literature. Herein, we describe the clinical features, pathophysiology, molecular biology, diagnostic tests, and the most recent approaches for the treatment of these diseases. Recent studies have combined technologies for ocular and brain imaging such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and functional imaging with genetic testing to identify the genetic basis for eye-brain connections. Additional work is needed to further explore these potential biomarkers. Overall, accurate, efficient, widely distributed and non-invasive tests that can help with early recognition of these diseases will improve the management of these patients using a multidisciplinary approach.