J Med Cases. 2023 Jul;14(7):265-269. doi: 10.14740/jmc4128. Epub 2023 Jul 31.
Wolfram syndrome (WS) is a rare neurodegenerative and genetic disorder, also known by the synonym DIDMOAD, which stands for diabetes insipidus (DI), childhood-onset diabetes mellitus (DM), optic atrophy (OA), and deafness (D). We present a case of a 25-year-old diabetic patient, using insulin for 15 years, who had increasing polyuria and polydipsia, along with progressive hearing and vision loss. Laboratory tests revealed elevated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and blood sugar levels. Optic nerve, optic chiasm, pons, and brain stem atrophy was seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain. After workup, a diagnosis of DI was made. Once the diagnosis was reached, treatment with subcutaneous insulin and nasal desmopressin improved patient’s symptoms. In juvenile diabetic patients presenting with new onset or worsening polyuria and polydipsia, the possibility of WS should be considered. Early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate management leads to improved outcomes and the quality of life.