Retinal vascular impairment in Wolfram syndrome: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

Sci Rep. 2022 Feb 8;12(1):2103. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-06150-6.

ABSTRACT

To evaluate differences in macular and optic disc circulation in patients affected by Wolfram Syndrome (WS) employing optical coherence tomography-angiography (OCTA) imaging. In this retrospective study, 18 eyes from 10 WS patients, 16 eyes of 8 patients affected by type I diabetes and 17 eyes from 17 healthy controls were enrolled. All patients were imaged through OCT and OCTA and vascular parameters, as perfusion density (PD) and vessel length density (VLD) were measured. OCTA showed reduced PD in WS patients at the macular superficial capillary plexus (SCP, 27.8 ± 5.3%), deep vascular complex (DVC, 33.2 ± 1.9%) and optic nerve head (ONH, 21.2 ± 9.1%) compared to both diabetic patients (SCP 33.9 ± 1.9%, P < 0.0001; DVC 33.2 ± 0.7%, P = 1.0; ONH 33.9 ± 1.3, P < 0.0001) and healthy controls (SCP 31.6 ± 2.5, P = 0.002; DVC 34.0 ± 0.7%, P = 0.089; ONH 34.6 ± 0.8%, P < 0.0001). Similarly, VLD was lower in WS patients at the SCP (10.9 ± 2.7%) and ONH levels (7.5 ± 4.1%) compared to diabetic patients (SCP 13.8 ± 1.2%, P = 0.001; DVC 13.8 ± 0.2%, P < 0.0001; ONH 13.0 ± 0.7%, P = < 0.0001), but higher in DVC (15.7 ± 1.2%, P < 0.0001). Furthermore, VLD was lower in WS patients in all the vascular parameters compared to controls (SCP 13.8 ± 1.5%, P < 0.0001; DVC 17.3 ± 0.6%, P < 0.0001; ONH 15.7 ± 0.5%, P < 0.0001). A significant microvasculature impairment in the macular SCP and ONH microvasculature was demonstrated in eyes affected by WS. Microvascular impairment may be considered a fundamental component of the neurodegenerative changes in WS.

PMID:35136185 | PMC:PMC8825854 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-022-06150-6

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