Diagnosis of Parkinson syndrome and Lewy-body disease using 123I-ioflupane images and a model with image features based on machine learning

Ann Nucl Med. 2022 Aug;36(8):765-776. doi: 10.1007/s12149-022-01759-z. Epub 2022 Jul 7.


OBJECTIVES: 123I-ioflupane has been clinically applied to dopamine transporter imaging and visual interpretation assisted by region-of-interest (ROI)-based parameters. We aimed to build a multivariable model incorporating machine learning (ML) that could accurately differentiate abnormal profiles on 123I-ioflupane images and diagnose Parkinson syndrome or disease and dementia with Lewy bodies (PS/PD/DLB).

METHODS: We assessed 123I-ioflupane images from 239 patients with suspected neurodegenerative diseases or dementia and classified them as having PS/PD/DLB or non-PS/PD/DLB. The image features of high or low uptake (F1), symmetry or asymmetry (F2), and comma- or dot-like patterns of caudate and putamen uptake (F3) were analyzed on 137 images from one hospital for training. Direct judgement of normal or abnormal profiles (F4) was also examined. Machine learning methods included logistic regression (LR), k-nearest neighbors (kNNs), and gradient boosted trees (GBTs) that were assessed using fourfold cross-validation. We generated the following multivariable models for the test database (n = 102 from another hospital): Model 1, ROI-based measurements of specific binding ratios and asymmetry indices; Model 2, ML-based judgement of abnormalities (F4); and Model 3, features F1, F2 and F3, plus patient age. Diagnostic accuracy was compared using areas under receiver-operating characteristics curves (AUC).

RESULTS: The AUC was high with all ML methods (0.92-0.96) for high or low uptake. The AUC was the highest for symmetry or asymmetry with the kNN method (AUC 0.75) and the comma-dot feature with the GBT method (AUC 0.94). Based on the test data set, the diagnostic accuracy for a diagnosis of PS/PD/DLB was 0.86 ± 0.04 (SE), 0.87 ± 0.04, and 0.93 ± 0.02 for Models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The AUC was optimal for Model 3, and significantly differed between Models 3 and 1 (p = 0.027), and 3 and 2 (p = 0.029).

CONCLUSIONS: Image features such as high or low uptake, symmetry or asymmetry, and comma- or dot-like profiles can be determined using ML. The diagnostic accuracy of differentiating PS/PD/DLB was the highest for the multivariate model with three features and age compared with the conventional ROI-based method.

PMID:35798937 | PMC:PMC9304062 | DOI:10.1007/s12149-022-01759-z