Metabolomic Disparities in Intraocular Fluid Across Varied Stages of Cataract Progression: Implications for the Analysis of Cataract Development

J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2024 Jul 8. doi: 10.1089/jop.2024.0067. Online ahead of print.


Introduction: The lens’s metabolic demands are met through a continuous circulation of aqueous humor, encompassing a spectrum of components such as organic and inorganic ions, carbohydrates, glutathione, urea, amino acids, proteins, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water. Metabolomics is a pivotal tool, offering an initial insight into the complexities of integrated metabolism. In this investigative study, we systematically scrutinize the composition of intraocular fluid in individuals afflicted with cataracts. Methods: The investigation involved a comprehensive analysis of aqueous humor samples from a cohort comprising 192 patients. These individuals were stratified by utilizing the SPONCS classification system, delineating distinct groups characterized by the hardness of cataracts. The analytical approach employed targeted quantitative metabolite analysis using HILIC-based liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometric detection. The metabolomics data analysis was performed with MetaboAnalyst 5.0. Results: The results of the enrichment analysis have facilitated the inference that the discerned disparities among groups arise from disruptions in taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, variations in tryptophan metabolism, and modifications in mitochondrial beta-oxidation of short-chain saturated fatty acids and pyrimidine metabolism. Conclusion: A decline in taurine concentration precipitates diminished glutathione activity, prompting an elevated requirement for NAD+ and instigating tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway. Activation of this pathway is additionally prompted by interferon-gamma and UV radiation, leading to the induction of IDO. Concurrently, heightened mitochondrial beta-oxidation signifies a distinctive scenario in translocating fatty acids into the mitochondria, enhancing energy production.

PMID:38976556 | DOI:10.1089/jop.2024.0067