Protective Effect of Nicotinamide Riboside on Glucocorticoid-Induced Glaucoma: Mitigating Mitochondrial Damage and Extracellular Matrix Deposition

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2024 Jul 1;65(8):1. doi: 10.1167/iovs.65.8.1.


PURPOSE: Glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma (GIG) is a prevalent complication associated with glucocorticoids (GCs), resulting in irreversible blindness. GIG is characterized by the abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the trabecular meshwork (TM), elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP), and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of nicotinamide riboside (NR) on TM in GIG.

METHODS: Primary human TM cells (pHTMs) and C57BL/6J mice responsive to GCs were utilized to establish in vitro and in vivo GIG models, respectively. The study assessed the expression of ECM-related proteins in TM and the functions of pHTMs to reflect the effects of NR. Mitochondrial morphology and function were also examined in the GIG cell model. GIG progression was monitored through IOP, RGCs, and mitochondrial morphology. Intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels of pHTMs were enzymatically assayed.

RESULTS: NR significantly prevented the expression of ECM-related proteins and alleviated dysfunction in pHTMs after dexamethasone treatment. Importantly, NR protected damaged ATP synthesis, preventing overexpression of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), and also protect against decreased mitochondrial membrane potential induced by GCs in vitro. In the GIG mouse model, NR partially prevented the elevation of IOP and the loss of RGCs. Furthermore, NR effectively suppressed the excessive expression of ECM-associated proteins and mitigated mitochondrial damage in vivo.

CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results, NR effectively enhances intracellular levels of NAD+, thereby mitigating abnormal ECM deposition and TM dysfunction in GIG by attenuating mitochondrial damage induced by GCs. Thus, NR has promising potential as a therapeutic candidate for GIG treatment.

PMID:38949632 | DOI:10.1167/iovs.65.8.1