Effects of organophosphorus flame retardant EHDPP on mouse retinal photoreceptor cells: Oxidative stress, apoptosis, and proinflammatory response

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2024 Jun 26;281:116640. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2024.116640. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

2-Ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP) is a frequently utilized organophosphorus flame retardant (OPFR) and has been extensively detected in environmental media. Prolonged daily exposure to EHDPP has been linked to potential retinal damage, yet the adverse impacts on the retina are still generally underexplored. In this research, we explored oxidative stress, inflammation, and the activating mechanisms initiated by EHDPP in mouse retinal photoreceptor (661 W) cells following a 24 h exposure period. Our research demonstrated that EHDPP led to a decline in cell viability that was directly proportional to its concentration, with the median lethal concentration (LC50) being 88 µM. Furthermore, EHDPP was found to elevate intracellular and mitochondrial levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), trigger apoptosis, induce cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, and modulate the expression of both antioxidant enzymes (Nrf2, HO-1, and CAT) and pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) within 661 W cells. These findings indicate that retinal damage triggered by EHDPP exposure could be mediated via the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway in these cells. Collectively, our investigation revealed that oxidative stress induced by EHDPP is likely a critical factor in the cytotoxic response of 661 W cells, potentially leading to damage in retinal photoreceptor cells.

PMID:38941656 | DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2024.116640