Vitamin D and Sulforaphane Decrease Inflammatory Oxidative Stress and Restore the Markers of Epithelial Integrity in an In Vitro Model of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Int J Mol Sci. 2024 Jun 10;25(12):6404. doi: 10.3390/ijms25126404.


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is strictly linked to chronic oxidative stress, inflammation, loss of epithelial barrier integrity, and often with abnormal new blood vessel development. In this study, the retinal epithelial cell line ARPE-19 was treated with pro-inflammatory transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) to investigate the activity of vitamin D (VD) and sulforaphane (SF) in abating the consequences of oxidative stress and inflammation. The administration of VD and SF lowered reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and abated the related expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 induced by TGF-β. We evaluated mitochondrial respiration as a source of ROS production, and we discovered that the increased transcription of respiratory elements triggered by TGF-β was prevented by VD and SF. In this model of inflamed epithelium, the treatment with VD and SF also reduced the secretion of VEGF, a key angiogenic factor, and restored the markers of epithelial integrity. Remarkably, all the observed biological effects were potentiated by the co-stimulation with the two compounds and were not mediated by VD receptor expression but rather by the ERK 1/2 pathway. Altogether, the results of this study reveal the powerful synergistic anti-inflammatory activity of SF and VD and lay the foundation for future clinical assessment of their efficacy in AMD.

PMID:38928111 | DOI:10.3390/ijms25126404