JP4-039, a Mitochondria-Targeted Nitroxide, Mitigates the Effect of Apoptosis and Inflammatory Cell Migration in the Irradiated Mouse Retina

Int J Mol Sci. 2024 Jun 13;25(12):6515. doi: 10.3390/ijms25126515.


We hypothesize that the injection of JP4-039, a mitochondria-targeted nitroxide, prior to irradiation of the mouse retina may decrease apoptosis and reduce neutrophil and macrophage migration into the retina. In our study, we aimed to examine the effects of JP4-039 in the mouse retina using fluorescent microscopy, a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and flow cytometry. Forty-five mice and one eye per mouse were used. In Group 1, fluorescent microscopy was used to determine retinal uptake of 10 µL (0.004 mg/µL) of intravitreally injected BODIPY-labeled JP4-039 at 0, 15, and 60 min after injection. In Group 2, the TUNEL assay was performed to investigate the rate of apoptosis after irradiation in addition to JP4-039 injection, compared to controls. In Group 3, flow cytometry was used to determine the extent of inflammatory cell migration into the retina after irradiation in addition to JP4-039 injection, compared to controls. Maximal retinal uptake of JP4-039 was 15 min after intravitreal injection (p < 0.0001). JP4-039-treated eyes had lower levels of retinal apoptosis (35.8 ± 2.5%) than irradiated controls (49.0 ± 2.7%; p = 0.0066) and demonstrated reduced migration of N1 cells (30.7 ± 11.7% vs. 77.7 ± 5.3% controls; p = 0.004) and M1 cells (76.6 ± 4.2 vs. 88.1 ± 3.7% controls, p = 0.04). Pretreatment with intravitreally injected JP4-039 reduced apoptosis and inflammatory cell migration in the irradiated mouse retina, marking the first confirmed effect of this molecule in retinal tissue. Further studies may allow for safety profiling and potential use for patients with radiation retinopathy.

PMID:38928220 | DOI:10.3390/ijms25126515