Crucial Roles of RSAD2/viperin in Immunomodulation, Mitochondrial Metabolism and Autoimmune Diseases

Inflammation. 2024 Jun 23. doi: 10.1007/s10753-024-02076-5. Online ahead of print.


Autoimmune diseases are typically characterized by aberrant activation of immune system that leads to excessive inflammatory reactions and tissue damage. Nevertheless, precise targeted and efficient therapies are limited. Thus, studies into novel therapeutic targets for the management of autoimmune diseases are urgently needed. Radical S-adenosyl methionine domain-containing 2 (RSAD2) is an interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) renowned for the antiviral properties of the protein it encodes, named viperin. An increasing number of studies have underscored the new roles of RSAD2/viperin in immunomodulation and mitochondrial metabolism. Previous studies have shown that there is a complex interplay between RSAD2/vipeirn and mitochondria and that binding of the iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster is necessary for the involvement of viperin in mitochondrial metabolism. Viperin influences the proliferation and development of immune cells as well as inflammation via different signaling pathways. However, the function of RSAD2/viperin varies in different studies and a comprehensive overview of this emerging theme is lacking. This review will describe the characteristics of RSAD2/viperin, decipher its function in immunometabolic processes, and clarify the crosstalk between RSAD2/viperin and mitochondria. Furthermore, we emphasize the crucial roles of RSAD2 in autoimmune diseases and its potential application value.

PMID:38909344 | DOI:10.1007/s10753-024-02076-5