NAD(+) Supplementation Improves Mitochondrial Functions and Normalizes Glaucomatous Trabecular Meshwork Features

Exp Cell Res. 2024 Jun 17:114137. doi: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2024.114137. Online ahead of print.


Glaucoma is characterized by pathological elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) due to dysfunctional trabecular meshwork (TM), which is the primary cause of irreversible vision loss. There are currently no effective treatment strategies for glaucoma. Mitochondrial function plays a crucial role in regulating IOP within the TM. In this study, primary TM cells treated with dexamethasone were used to simulate glaucomatous changes, showing abnormal cellular cytoskeleton, increased expression of extracellular matrix, and disrupted mitochondrial fusion and fission dynamics. Furthermore, glaucomatous TM cell line GTM3 exhibited impaired mitochondrial membrane potential and phagocytic function, accompanied by decreased oxidative respiratory levels as compared to normal TM cells iHTM. Mechanistically, lower NAD+ levels in GTM3, possibly associated with increased expression of key enzymes CD38 and PARP1 related to NAD+ consumption, were observed. Supplementation of NAD+ restored mitochondrial function and cellular viability in GTM3 cells. Therefore, we propose that the aberrant mitochondrial function in glaucomatous TM cells may be attributed to increased NAD+ consumption dependent on CD38 and PARP1, and NAD+ supplementation could effectively ameliorate mitochondrial function and improve TM function, providing a novel alternative approach for glaucoma treatment.

PMID:38897410 | DOI:10.1016/j.yexcr.2024.114137