Electrodiagnostic tests of the visual pathway and applications in neuro-ophthalmology

Eye (Lond). 2024 Jun 11. doi: 10.1038/s41433-024-03154-6. Online ahead of print.


This article describes the main visual electrodiagnostic tests relevant to neuro-ophthalmology practice, including the visual evoked potential (VEP), and the full-field, pattern and multifocal electroretinograms (ffERG; PERG; mfERG). The principles of electrophysiological interpretation are illustrated with reference to acquired and inherited optic neuropathies, and retinal disorders that may masquerade as optic neuropathy, including ffERG and PERG findings in cone and macular dystrophies, paraneoplastic and vascular retinopathies. Complementary VEP and PERG recordings are illustrated in demyelinating, ischaemic, nutritional (B12), and toxic (mercury, cobalt, and ethambutol-related) optic neuropathies and inherited disorders affecting mitochondrial function such as Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and dominant optic atrophy. The value of comprehensive electrophysiological phenotyping in syndromic diseases is highlighted in cases of SSBP1-related disease and ROSAH (Retinal dystrophy, Optic nerve oedema, Splenomegaly, Anhidrosis and Headache). The review highlights the value of different electrophysiological techniques, for the purposes of differential diagnosis and objective functional phenotyping.

PMID:38862643 | DOI:10.1038/s41433-024-03154-6