Mitochondria-Targeted Nanoadjuvants Induced Multi-Functional Immune-Microenvironment Remodeling to Sensitize Tumor Radio-Immunotherapy

Adv Sci (Weinh). 2024 May 5:e2400297. doi: 10.1002/advs.202400297. Online ahead of print.


It is newly revealed that collagen works as a physical barrier to tumor immune infiltration, oxygen perfusion, and immune depressor in solid tumors. Meanwhile, after radiotherapy (RT), the programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) overexpression and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) excessive secretion would accelerate DNA damage repair and trigger T cell exclusion to limit RT efficacy. However, existing drugs or nanoparticles can hardly address these obstacles of highly effective RT simultaneously, effectively, and easily. In this study, it is revealed that inducing mitochondria dysfunction by using oxidative phosphorylation inhibitors like Lonidamine (LND) can serve as a highly effective multi-immune pathway regulation strategy through PD-L1, collagen, and TGF-β co-depression. Then, IR-LND is prepared by combining the mitochondria-targeted molecule IR-68 with LND, which then is loaded with liposomes (Lip) to create IR-LND@Lip nanoadjuvants. By doing this, IR-LND@Lip more effectively sensitizes RT by generating more DNA damage and transforming cold tumors into hot ones through immune activation by PD-L1, collagen, and TGF-β co-inhibition. In conclusion, the combined treatment of RT and IR-LND@Lip ultimately almost completely suppressed the growth of bladder tumors and breast tumors.

PMID:38704675 | DOI:10.1002/advs.202400297