Long term clinical follow up of four patients with Wolfram syndrome and urodynamic abnormalities

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2024 Mar 12. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2023-0531. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVES: Wolfram syndrome is characterised by insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM), diabetes insipidus (DI), optic atrophy, sensorineural deafness and neurocognitive disorders. The DIDMOAD acronym has been recently modified to DIDMOAUD suggesting the rising awareness of the prevalence of urinary tract dysfunction (UD). End stage renal disease is the commonest cause of mortality in Wolfram syndrome. We present a case series with main objective of long term follow up in four children having Wolfram syndrome with evaluation of their urodynamic profile.

METHODS: A prospective follow up of four genetically proven children with Wolfram syndrome presenting to a tertiary care pediatric diabetes clinic in Pune, India was conducted. Their clinical, and urodynamic parameters were reviewed.

RESULTS: IDDM, in the first decade, was the initial presentation in all the four children (three male and one female). Three children had persistent polyuria and polydipsia despite having optimum glycemic control; hence were diagnosed to have DI and treated with desmopressin. All four patients entered spontaneous puberty. All patients had homozygous mutation in WFS1 gene; three with exon 8 and one with exon 6 novel mutations. These children with symptoms of lower urinary tract malfunction were further evaluated with urodynamic studies; two of them had hypocontractile detrusor and another had sphincter-detrusor dyssynergia. Patients with hypocontractile bladder were taught clean intermittent catheterization and the use of overnight drain.

CONCLUSIONS: We report a novel homozygous deletion in exon 6 of WFS-1 gene. The importance of evaluation of lower urinary tract malfunction is highlighted by our case series. The final bladder outcome in our cases was a poorly contractile bladder in three patients.

PMID:38465704 | DOI:10.1515/jpem-2023-0531