Long-term prognosis of fatty-acid oxidation disorders in adults: Optimism despite the limited effective therapies available

Eur J Neurol. 2024 Feb;31(2):e16138. doi: 10.1111/ene.16138. Epub 2023 Nov 28.


INTRODUCTION: Fatty-acid oxidation disorders (FAODs) are recessive genetic diseases.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report here clinical and paraclinical data from a retrospective study of 44 adults with muscular FAODs from six French reference centers for neuromuscular or metabolic diseases.

RESULTS: The study cohort consisted of 44 adult patients: 14 with carnitine palmitoyl transferase 2 deficiency (32%), nine with multiple acyl-CoA deficiency (20%), 13 with very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (30%), three with long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (7%), and five with short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (11%). Disease onset occurred during childhood in the majority of patients (59%), with a mean age at onset of 15 years (range = 0.5-35) and a mean of 12.6 years (range = 0-58) from disease onset to diagnosis. The principal symptoms were acute muscle manifestations (rhabdomyolysis, exercise intolerance, myalgia), sometimes associated with permanent muscle weakness. Episodes of rhabdomyolysis were frequent (84%), with a mean creatinine kinase level of 68,958 U/L (range = 660-300,000). General metabolic complications were observed in 58% of patients, respiratory manifestations in 18% of cases, and cardiological manifestations in 9% of cases. Fasting acylcarnitine profile was used to orient genetic explorations in 65% of cases. After a mean follow-up of 10 years, 33% of patients were asymptomatic and 56% continued to display symptoms after exercise. The frequency of rhabdomyolysis decreased after diagnosis in 64% of cases.

CONCLUSION: A standardized register would complete this cohort description of muscular forms of FAODs with exhaustive data, making it possible to assess the efficacy of therapeutic protocols in real-life conditions and during the long-term follow-up of patients.

PMID:38015438 | DOI:10.1111/ene.16138