J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2023 Dec 27. doi: 10.1089/jop.2023.0125. Online ahead of print.
Optic neuropathies, such as glaucoma, are some of the leading causes of irreversible blindness worldwide. There has been a lot of research for potential therapies that could attenuate and even reduce the impact of the pathological pathways that lead to the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In recent years, vitamin B3 (nicotinamide) has gained some interest as a viable option for these neurodegenerative diseases due to its fundamental role in enhancing the mitochondria metabolism of the RGCs. This review focuses on elucidating the impact of vitamin B3 on retinal cells, especially when in a dysfunctional state like what happens in optic neuropathies, especially glaucoma. This review also summarizes the existing and future research on the clinical effects of vitamin B3 in these optic neuropathies, and determines appropriate recommendations regarding its dosing, efficacy, and eventual side effects.