Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Dec 15;24(24):17496. doi: 10.3390/ijms242417496.
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a rare disorder causing a sudden painless loss of visual acuity in one or both eyes, affecting young males in their second to third decade of life. The molecular background of the LHON is up to 90%, genetically defined by a point mutation in mitochondrial DNA. Recently, an autosomal recessive form of LHON (LHONAR1, arLHON) has been discovered, caused by biallelic variants in the DNAJC30 gene. This study provides the results of the DNAJC30 gene analysis in a large group of 46 Polish patients diagnosed with LHON, together with the clinical characterization of the disease. The c.152A>G (p.Tyr51Cys) substitution in the DNAJC30 gene was detected in all the patients as homozygote or compound heterozygote. Moreover, we identified one novel variant, c.293A>G, p.(Tyr98Cys), as well as two ultra-rare DNAJC30 variants: c.293A>C, p.(Tyr98Ser), identified to date only in one individual affected with LHONAR1, and c.130_131delTC (p.Ser44ValfsTer8), previously described only in two patients with Leigh syndrome. The patients presented here represent the largest group of subjects with DNAJC30 gene mutations described to date. Based on our data, the autosomal recessive form of LHON caused by DNAJC30 gene mutations is more frequent than the mitochondrial form in Polish patients. The results of our study suggest that Sanger sequencing of the single-exon DNAJC30 gene should be a method of choice applied to identify a molecular background of clinically confirmed LHON in Polish patients. This approach will help to reduce the costs of molecular testing.