Neuroreport. 2023 Dec 22. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0000000000001990. Online ahead of print.
CONTEXT: Sevoflurane is an inhalational anesthetic widely used in pediatric surgery. However, animal studies have shown that multiple sevoflurane exposures during the neonatal period led to ototoxicity. 20(S)-Ginsenoside Rh1, a ginsenoside extract, protects against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity by scavenging free radicals.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the effects of Rh1 on sevoflurane-induced ototoxicity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Neonatal cochlear explants and House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1 (HEI-OC1) cells were cultured and randomly divided into three groups: the control group, the sevoflurane group and the Rh1 pretreatment group. We pretreated cochlear explants or HEI-OC1 cells with 100 μM Rh1 2 hours before performing sevoflurane exposure. Immunofluorescence was used to detect hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons. Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was used to determine cell viability. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide were used to evaluate apoptosis. CellROX-Green and MitoSOX-Red probes were used to measure the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester labeling was used to examine mitochondrial membrane potential.
RESULTS: Rh1 attenuated spiral ganglion neuron nerve fibers and synapses degeneration in cochlear explants after sevoflurane exposure. Rh1 significantly increased the viability of HEI-OC1 cells, reduced reactive oxygen species accumulation in HEI-OC1 cells, and prevented mitochondrial damage in HEI-OC1 cells after sevoflurane exposure.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that Rh1 is a promising drug for preventing sevoflurane-induced ototoxicity.