Hum Genomics. 2023 Nov 27;17(1):108. doi: 10.1186/s40246-023-00557-6.
Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology have greatly accelerated the need for efficient annotation to accurately interpret clinically relevant genetic variants in human diseases. Therefore, it is crucial to develop appropriate analytical tools to improve the interpretation of disease variants. Given the unique genetic characteristics of mitochondria, including haplogroup, heteroplasmy, and maternal inheritance, we developed a suite of variant analysis toolkits specifically designed for primary mitochondrial diseases: the Mitochondrial Missense Variant Annotation Tool (MmisAT) and the Mitochondrial Missense Variant Pathogenicity Predictor (MmisP). MmisAT can handle protein-coding variants from both nuclear DNA and mtDNA and generate 349 annotation types across six categories. It processes 4.78 million variant data in 76 min, making it a valuable resource for clinical and research applications. Additionally, MmisP provides pathogenicity scores to predict the pathogenicity of genetic variations in mitochondrial disease. It has been validated using cross-validation and external datasets and demonstrated higher overall discriminant accuracy with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve area under the curve (AUC) of 0.94, outperforming existing pathogenicity predictors. In conclusion, the MmisAT is an efficient tool that greatly facilitates the process of variant annotation, expanding the scope of variant annotation information. Furthermore, the development of MmisP provides valuable insights into the creation of disease-specific, phenotype-specific, and even gene-specific predictors of pathogenicity, further advancing our understanding of specific fields.