Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Oct 31;24(21):15834. doi: 10.3390/ijms242115834.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) represents a major diagnostic challenge, as early detection is crucial for effective intervention. This review examines the diagnostic challenges facing current AD evaluations and explores the emerging field of retinal alterations as early indicators. Recognizing the potential of the retina as a noninvasive window to the brain, we emphasize the importance of identifying retinal biomarkers in the early stages of AD. However, the examination of AD is not without its challenges, as the similarities shared with other retinal diseases introduce complexity in the search for AD-specific markers. In this review, we address the relevance of using the retina for the early diagnosis of AD and the complex challenges associated with the search for AD-specific retinal biomarkers. We provide a comprehensive overview of the current landscape and highlight avenues for progress in AD diagnosis by retinal examination.