J Med Case Rep. 2023 Sep 27;17(1):409. doi: 10.1186/s13256-023-04150-2.
BACKGROUND: Wolfram syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder that affects 1/200,000 to 1/1,000,000 children. It is characterized by juvenile onset diabetes, optic nerve atrophy and other systemic manifestations. Symptoms of the disease arise mostly in early childhood with a high mortality rate due to severe neurological complications. Two causative genes have been identifed in this syndrome; the classical form is caused by autosomal recessive mutations of the WFS1 gene, and a smaller portion of patients has mutations in the CIDS2 gene, which are responsible for autosomal recessive Wolfram syndrome 2.
CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 28-year-old Moroccan boy born from consanguineous parents referred to the department of medical genetics at the National Institute of Health in Rabat. The diagnosis of Wolfram syndrome was made based on insulin-dependent diabetes, optic nerve atrophy, sensorineural deafness, urological abnormalities and psychiatric illness. To establish the diagnosis at a molecular level, we performed next-generation sequencing in the index patient, which revealed compound heterozygous WFS1 mutations: c.1113G > A (p.Trp371Ter) and c.1223_1224insGGAACCACCTGGAGCCCTATGCCCATTT (p.Phe408fs). This second variant has never been described in patients with Wolfram syndrome.
CONCLUSION: The identification of the genetic substrate in our patient confirmed the clinical diagnosis of Wolfram syndrome and allowed us to provide him an appropriate management and genetic counseling to his family.