Int Ophthalmol. 2023 Sep 9. doi: 10.1007/s10792-023-02859-z. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: This study investigated the protective effect of probucol on Müller cells exposed to high glucose conditions and examined potential mechanisms of action.
METHODS: Primary human retinal Müller cells were incubated with high glucose (HG, 35 mM) in the present or absence of different concentrations of probucol for 24 h. Cell viability was determined using the CCK-8 method. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was measured using JC-1 staining and cell cycle by flow cytometry. The expression of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, and p62 was quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot.
RESULTS: We found that HG inhibited cell proliferation, arrested cell cycle, and increased MMP in human Müller cells. Probucol activated the Nrf2/p62 pathway and upregulated the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl2, and attenuated HG-mediated damage in Müller cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that probucol may protect Müller cells from HG-induced damage through enhancing the Nrf2/p62 signaling pathway.