Brain Sci. 2023 Aug 16;13(8):1210. doi: 10.3390/brainsci13081210.
We report a 20-year-old, female, adopted Indian patient with over 662 Mb regions of homozy-gosity who presented with intellectual disability, ataxia, schizophrenia, retinal dystrophy, moder-ate-to-severe progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), congenital hypothyroidism, cleft mi-tral valve with mild mitral valve regurgitation, and dysmorphic features. Exome analysis first on a clinical basis and subsequently on research reanalysis uncovered pathogenic variants in three nu-clear genes following two modes of inheritance that were causal to her complex phenotype. These included (1) compound heterozygous variants in BBS6 potentially causative for Bardet-Biedl syn-drome 6; (2) a homozygous, known pathogenic variant in the stereocilin (STRC) gene associated with nonsyndromic deafness; and (3) a homozygous variant in dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) gene asso-ciated with congenital hypothyroidism. A variant of uncertain significance was identified in a fourth gene, troponin T2 (TNNT2), associated with cardiomyopathy but not the cleft mitral valve, with mild mitral regurgitation seen in this case. This patient was the product of an apparent first-degree relationship, explaining the multiple independent inherited findings. This case high-lights the need to carefully evaluate multiple independent genetic etiologies for complex pheno-types, particularly in the case of consanguinity, rather than presuming unexplained features are expansions of known gene disorders.