Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Jul 3;24(13):11025. doi: 10.3390/ijms241311025.
This study uses personalized chronic lymphoblastic leukemia (CLL) cybrid cells to test various drugs/agents designed to improve mitochondrial function and cell longevity. Age-matched control (NL) and CLL cybrids were created. The NL and CLL cybrids were treated with ibrutinib (Ibr-10 μM), mitochondrial-targeted nutraceuticals such as alpha lipoic acid (ALA-1 mM), amla (Aml-300 μg), melatonin (Mel-1 mM), resveratrol (Res-100 μM) alone, or a combination of ibrutinib with nutraceuticals (Ibr + ALA, Ibr + Aml, Ibr + Mel, or Ibr + Res) for 48 h. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide), H2DCFDA(2′,7′ Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate), and JC1 assays were used to measure the cellular metabolism, intracellular ROS levels, and mitochondrial membrane potential (∆ψm), respectively. The expression levels of genes associated with antioxidant enzymes (SOD2, GPX3, and NOX4), apoptosis (BAX and CASP3), and inflammation (IL6, IL-1β, TNFα, and TGFβ) were measured using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). CLL cybrids treated with Ibr + ALA, Ibr + Aml, Ibr + Mel, and Ibr + Res had (a) reduced cell survivability, (b) increased ROS production, (c) increased ∆ψm levels, (d) decreased antioxidant gene expression levels, and (e) increased apoptotic and inflammatory genes in CLL cybrids when compared with ibrutinib-alone-treated CLL cybrids. Our findings show that the addition of nutraceuticals makes the CLL cybrids more pro-apoptotic with decreased cell survival compared with CLL cybrids exposed to ibrutinib alone.