Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2023 Jun 27. doi: 10.1007/s00417-023-06160-8. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSES: This work aimed to assess the possible role of TRIM25 in regulating hyperglycemia-induced inflammation, senescence, and oxidative stress in retinal microvascular endothelial cells, all of which exert critical roles in the pathological process of diabetic retinopathy.
METHODS: The effects of TRIM25 were investigated using streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, human primary retinal microvascular endothelial cells cultured in high glucose, and adenoviruses for TRIM25 knockdown and overexpression. TRIM25 expression was evaluated by western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Inflammatory cytokines were detected by western blot and quantitative real-time PCR. Cellular senescence level was assessed by detecting senescent marker p21 and senescence-associated-β-galactosidase activity. The oxidative stress state was accessed by detecting reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase.
RESULTS: TRIM25 expression is elevated in the endothelial cells of the retinal fibrovascular membrane from diabetic patients compared with that of the macular epiretinal membrane from non-diabetic patients. Moreover, we have also observed a significant increase in TRIM25 expression in diabetic mouse retina and retinal microvascular endothelial cells under hyperglycemia. TRIM25 knockdown suppressed hyperglycemia-induced inflammation, senescence, and oxidative stress in human primary retinal microvascular endothelial cells while TRIM25 overexpression further aggregates those injuries. Further investigation revealed that TRIM25 promoted the inflammatory responses mediated by the TNF-α/NF-κB pathway and TRIM25 knockdown improved cellular senescence by increasing SIRT3. However, TRIM25 knockdown alleviated the oxidative stress independent of both SIRT3 and mitochondrial biogenesis.
CONCLUSION: Our study proposed TRIM25 as a potential therapeutic target for the protection of microvascular function during the progression of diabetic retinopathy.