Eye (Lond). 2023 Apr 25. doi: 10.1038/s41433-023-02523-x. Online ahead of print.
Historically, distinct mitochondrial syndromes were recognised clinically by their ocular features. Due to their predilection for metabolically active tissue, mitochondrial diseases frequently involve the eye, resulting in a range of ophthalmic manifestations including progressive external ophthalmoplegia, retinopathy and optic neuropathy, as well as deficiencies of the retrochiasmal visual pathway. With the wider availability of genetic testing in clinical practice, it is now recognised that genotype-phenotype correlations in mitochondrial diseases can be imprecise: many classic syndromes can be associated with multiple genes and genetic variants, and the same genetic variant can have multiple clinical presentations, including subclinical ophthalmic manifestations in individuals who are otherwise asymptomatic. Previously considered rare diseases with no effective treatments, considerable progress has been made in our understanding of mitochondrial diseases with new therapies emerging, in particular, gene therapy for inherited optic neuropathies.