Mitochondrion. 2019 May;46:262-269. doi: 10.1016/j.mito.2018.07.006. Epub 2018 Aug 27.
Autosomal Dominant Optic Atrophy (ADOA) is a neuro-ophthalmic disease characterized by progressive bilateral vision loss, pallor of the optic disc, central vision loss, and impairment of color vision. Additionally, a small percentage of patients experience hearing loss and ataxia, while recent studies suggest disruption of cardiac and neuromuscular functions. In order to obtain a better understanding of the genotype-phenotype correlation of the various mutations in the optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) gene, we obtained both clinical and genetic information of ADOA patients from published reports. We conducted a systematic review of published OPA1 literature and identified 408 individuals with confirmed OPA1 mutations, 120 of whom reported extra-ocular (ADOA ‘plus’) manifestations through their descriptions of visual and multi-systemic symptoms. Our results show that there is a significant variation in frequency of the specific exons involved between the ADOA classic and ADOA ‘plus’ patients. Classic ADOA groups were more likely to have mutations in exon 8 and 9, while ADOA ‘plus’ groups were more likely to have mutations in exons 14, 15 and 17. Additional comparisons revealed significant differences between mutation types/domains and specific ADOA ‘plus’ manifestations. We also found that individuals with maternally inherited OPA1 mutations were significantly more likely to develop ‘plus’ manifestations than those with paternally inherited mutations. Overall, this study provides novel information regarding genotype-phenotype correlations of ADOA which warrants additional recommendations added to the current clinical management of ADOA patients.