Metabolites. 2023 Jan 27;13(2):187. doi: 10.3390/metabo13020187.
Redox homeostasis is a delicate balancing act of maintaining appropriate levels of antioxidant defense mechanisms and reactive oxidizing oxygen and nitrogen species. Any disruption of this balance leads to oxidative stress, which is a key pathogenic factor in several ocular diseases. In this review, we present the current evidence for oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in conditions affecting both the anterior segment (e.g., dry eye disease, keratoconus, cataract) and posterior segment (age-related macular degeneration, proliferative vitreoretinopathy, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma) of the human eye. We posit that further development of therapeutic interventions to promote pro-regenerative responses and maintenance of the redox balance may delay or prevent the progression of these major ocular pathologies. Continued efforts in this field will not only yield a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of ocular diseases but also enable the identification of novel druggable redox targets and antioxidant therapies.