Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2023 Feb 27:166671. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2023.166671. Online ahead of print.
The SARS-CoV-2 induced coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has recently caused a pandemic. Patients with COVID-19 presented with a wide spectrum of symptoms for the disease, from entirely asymptomatic to full-blown pneumonia and multiorgan failures. More evidence emerged, showing the production of interferons (IFNs) in the severe cases were significantly lower than their milder counterparts, suggesting linkage of COVID-19 to impaired innate immunity. This review presents a brief overview of how coronaviruses evade innate immunity, based on the information from SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The coronaviruses manage to block, escape, or dampen the innate immune response by antagonizing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) sensor, stimulator of IFN genes (STING) and mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) pathways, epigenetic modification, posttranslational modifications, and host mRNA translation. We provide novel insights into a comprehensive therapy to combat SARS-CoV-2 infection.