Ophthalmic Genet. 2023 Mar 1:1-8. doi: 10.1080/13816810.2023.2183223. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Harel-Yoon syndrome (HAYOS) is a recently described neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by psychomotor delay, truncal hypotonia, appendicular spasticity, and peripheral neuropathy. It is caused by mutations in ATAD3A gene located on chromosome 1p.36.33 whose functions include mitochondrial DNA stabilization, the regulation of mitochondrial fission/fusion, and cholesterol homeostasis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: An 11-year-old male patient of consanguineous Egyptian parents, who present with neuroregression and ptosis along with progressive impaired vision, undergoes complete ophthalmological and neurological examination. Additionally, color fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) of both the macula and optic nerve head, full field electroretinogram (ERG), and visual field perimetry were obtained. Whole-exome sequencing and mitochondrial genome sequencing were done in a commercial laboratory from a peripheral blood sample.
RESULTS: A novel mutation in ATAD3A gene c.624_644del was identified by whole-exome sequencing consistent with a diagnosis of Harel-Yoon Syndrome (HAYOS). The 11-year-old boy had characteristic features of neurodevelopmental delay, hypotonia, and peripheral neuropathy. However, we documented some novel features as fatiguable ptosis, facial weakness, progressive bulbar palsy, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in addition to cone system dysfunction.
CONCLUSION: Our study reports a novel mutation in ATAD3A gene and expands the clinical spectrum of Harel-Yoon Syndrome. Future research aiming at better understanding of gene function will lead to better genotype-phenotype correlation and could pave the way to more treatment options.