Is the disease risk and penetrance in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy actually low?

Am J Hum Genet. 2023 Jan 5;110(1):170-176. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2022.11.014. Epub 2022 Dec 23.


Pedigree analysis showed that a large proportion of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) family members who carry a mitochondrial risk variant never lose vision. Mitochondrial haplotype appears to be a major factor influencing the risk of vision loss from LHON. Mitochondrial variants, including m.14484T>C and m.11778G>A, have been added to gene arrays, and thus many patients and research participants are tested for LHON mutations. Analysis of the UK Biobank and Australian cohort studies found more than 1 in 1,000 people in the general population carry either the m.14484T>C or the m.11778G>A LHON variant. None of the subset of carriers examined had visual acuity at 20/200 or worse, suggesting a very low penetrance of LHON. Haplogroup analysis of m.14484T>C carriers showed a high rate of haplogroup U subclades, previously shown to have low penetrance in pedigrees. Penetrance calculations of the general population are lower than pedigree calculations, most likely because of modifier genetic factors. This Matters Arising Response paper addresses the Watson et al. (2022) Matters Arising paper, published concurrently in The American Journal of Human Genetics.

PMID:36565701 | PMC:PMC9892764 | DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2022.11.014