J Neurol Sci. 2022 Jun 15;437:120267. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2022.120267. Epub 2022 Apr 20.
Wolfram Syndrome (WS) is a rare progressive hereditary neurodegenerative disease with hallmark features of diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and hearing loss. Its other clinical manifestations may include diabetes insipidus, urological, neurological, and psychiatric abnormalities. We review systemic and ocular manifestations of WS as well as its pathophysiology, diagnostic approach, and treatment options. We then describe a case series of 5 patients (ages 15-38, 60% male) with WS. All had significant progressive visual loss. 3/5 patients had type 1 DM and 4/5 had hearing loss. Other neuro-ophthalmological findings included convergence impairment and end-gaze nystagmus. This case series highlights the variability in clinical presentations of patients with WS, reminding clinicians to maintain high suspicion for this diagnosis in order to allow for prompt diagnosis and genetic counselling for patients and their families.