AACE Clin Case Rep. 2022 Jan 12;8(3):128-130. doi: 10.1016/j.aace.2022.01.001. eCollection 2022 May-Jun.
OBJECTIVE: Early diagnosis of syndromic monogenic diabetes allows for proper management and can lead to improved quality of life in the long term. This report aimed to describe 2 genetically confirmed cases of Wolfram syndrome, a rare endoplasmic reticulum disorder characterized by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic nerve atrophy, and progressive neurodegeneration.
CASE REPORT: A 16-year-old Caucasian male patient and a 25-year-old Caucasian female patient with a history of diabetes mellitus and optic nerve atrophy presented at our medical center. Both patients were initially diagnosed with type 1 diabetes but negative for islet autoantibodies. Their body mass indexes were under 25 at the diagnosis. Their history and presentation were highly suspicious for Wolfram syndrome.
DISCUSSION: The genetic tests revealed a known Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1) pathogenic variant (homozygous) in the 16-year-old male patient and 2 known WFS1 pathogenic variants (compound heterozygous) in the 25-year-old female patient with diabetes mellitus and optic nerve atrophy, confirming the diagnosis of Wolfram syndrome. The first patient had a moderate form, and the second patient had a milder form of Wolfram syndrome.
CONCLUSION: Providers should consider monogenic diabetes genetic testing, including WFS1 gene, for patients with early-onset diabetes who are negative for islet autoantibodies and lean. Two patients described in this article could have been diagnosed with Wolfram syndrome before they developed optic nerve atrophy. Genetic testing is a valuable tool for the early detection of Wolfram syndrome, which leads to proper management and improved quality of life in patients with this rare medical condition.