Ophthalmic Genet. 2022 Sep 12:1-9. doi: 10.1080/13816810.2022.2113546. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Wolfram syndrome type 1 is a rare neurodegenerative disorder including diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness, with variable additional findings. The phenotypic spectrum is very heterogeneous, with non-autoimmune juvenile-onset diabetes and optic atrophy as minimal criteria for the diagnosis. Biallelic mutations in the WFS1 gene are the causative genetic anomaly for the syndrome, with, however, no evident genotype-phenotype correlation. Among the clinical features of the disease, diabetic retinopathy depicts a rarely reported microvascular complication. In this report, we describe the clinical and genetic findings in a 26-year-old patient presenting with Wolfram syndrome and severe diabetic retinopathy.
METHODS: The mutation screening was performed by polymerase chain reaction followed by Sanger sequencing of the entire coding sequence of the WFS1 gene.
RESULTS: A novel homozygous missense variant c.1901A>T (p.Lys634Met) was found in the proband and classified as probably pathogenic according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.
CONCLUSIONS: The molecular study of the WFS1 gene is essential for the diagnostic confirmation, to provide appropriate genetic counseling and a mutational screening in the at-risk relatives. The c.1901A>T (p.Lys634 Met) is a novel variant that could be responsible for a severe form of Wolfram syndrome with early and proliferative diabetic retinopathy.