Acta Ophthalmol. 2018 May;96(3):251-256. doi: 10.1111/aos.13588. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
PURPOSE: To assess layer- and location-specific retinal thickness deficits in autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) using Spectralis SD-OCT.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 41 ADOA patients with OPA1 exon 28 (2826delT) mutation [age, 8.6-83.5 years; best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), 8-89 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letters] and 55 mutation-free first-degree relatives as healthy controls (age, 8.9-68.7; BCVA, 80-99). Participants underwent routine examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT) with segmentation of the whole retina, inner retinal layers (IRL) and outer retinal layers (ORL). Individual segmentation was performed of the perifoveal retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), outer nuclear layer (ONL), retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the peripapillary RNFL. Combinations of layers and sectors were tested for their diagnostic significance. Only right eye data are presented. Statistical analysis was adjusted for age, gender, spherical equivalent, axial length and family clustering in a mixed model analysis.
RESULTS: The perifoveal RNFL, GCL, IPL and the peripapillary RNFL were all significantly thinner in ADOA patients than in healthy controls (p < 0.0001). No statistical difference was found for other layers. The most prominent and diagnostically most valuable deficit was found in the GCL (-49.9%) in the ‘nasal inner macula’ (NIM) sector (-63%). Attenuation of the peripapillary RNFL was most significant in the temporal sector (-58.4%).
CONCLUSION: In ADOA, retinal ganglion cells are most prominently reduced in the nasal perifoveal area of the GCL, which together with the temporal peripapillary RNFL area serves as the strongest diagnostic OCT marker.